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Spring constant is the amount of force required to move the spring a set amount of distance. The set amount of distance is determined by your units of measurement and your spring type.

For example, if you are calculating the spring constant of a compression spring using English measurements, your value would be pounds of force per inch of distance traveled. If you are using the metric system, your spring constant would be in Newtons per millimeter of distance traveled. Extension springs have the same units of measurements as compression springs, however, torsion spring constant is calculated in inch-pounds of force per 360 degrees of travel or per degree of travel.

When determining a spring constant there are 2 different formulas you can use depending which information you have available to you. The first formula is the one most commonly used when you know the dimensions on yourof your spring but do not know your load and distance traveled on the spring.

k = Gd^4 / 8D^3N

- d = wire size (inches)
- D = Mean Diameter (inches)
- N = Number of active coils
- D / d = Index correction
- G = Shear Modulus of Material
- k = Spring Constant

- Music Wire = 11.5 x 10^6
- Stainless Steel = 11.2 x 10^6
- Phospher Bronze = 5.9 x 10^6
- Monel = 9.6 x 10^6
- Inconel = 11.5 x 10^6
- Copper = 6.5 x 10^6
- Beryllium Copper = 6.9 x 10^6

- d = 0.035 inches
- OD = 0.500 inches
- D = 0.465 inches
- N = 8
- Wire Type = Music Wire
- G = 11.5 x 10^6 psi
- FL = 1.000 inches

k = Gd^4 / 8D^3Nk = (11.5 x 10^6) (0.035)^4) / 8 (0.465)^3 (8)k = 17.2571875 / 6.434856k = 2.68 lbs / inch

The other way to calculate the compression spring constant on your spring is if you know the load you want to achieve at a certain distance traveled. The formula to figure out your spring constant from a known load and distance traveled is:

Rate = Load / Distance Traveled

- Load = 10 pounds
- Travel = 4 inches
`Rate = 10 lbs / 4 inches`

`Rate = 2.5 pounds / inch`

Calculating your extension spring constant uses the same formula as the compression spring constant calculation. Make sure when measure your extension spring you have the correct measurement for each value. For more information on this please visit our spring measurement and specifications page.

k = Gd^4 / 8D^3N

- d = wire size (inches)
- D = Mean Diameter (inches)
- N = Number of active coils
- D / d = Index correction
- G = Shear Modulus of Material
- k = Spring Constant

- Music Wire = 11.5 x 10^6
- Stainless Steel = 11.2 x 10^6
- Phospher Bronze = 5.9 x 10^6
- Monel = 9.6 x 10^6
- Inconel = 11.5 x 10^6
- Copper = 6.5 x 10^6
- Beryllium Copper = 6.9 x 10^6

- d = 0.044 inches
- OD = 0.425 inches
- D = 0.381 inches
- N = 5
- Wire Type = Music Wire
- G = 11.5 x 10^6 psi
- FL = 1.250 inches

k = Gd^4 / 8D^3Nk = (11.5 x 10^6) (0.044)^4) / 8 (0.381)^3 (5)k = 43.103104 / 2.21225364k = 19.472 lbs / inch

The other way to calculate the extension spring constant on your spring is if you know the load you want to achieve at a certain distance traveled. The formula to figure out your spring constant from a known load and distance traveled is:

Rate = (Load – Initial Tension) ÷ Distance Traveled

For Example:

- Load = 10 pounds
- Initial Tension = 2.5 pounds
- Travel = 0.5 inches
`Rate = (10 lbs – 2.5 lbs) ÷ 0.5 inches`

`Rate = 14 pounds / inch`

Calculating torsion spring constant is a little different than calculating the spring constant for compression or extension springs. Since a torsion spring travels in degrees and not linearly it needs a different formula. Below you can see the formula for torsion spring constant and an example of how the formula works.

(R) = Ed^4 / 10.8 DN

- d = wire size (inches)
- D = Mean Diameter (inches)
- N = Number of active coils
- D / d = Index correction
- G = Shear Modulus of Material
- k = Spring Constant

PSI x 10^6

- Music Wire = 30 psi
- Stainless Steel = 28 psi
- Chrome Vanadium = 30 psi
- Chrome Silicon = 30 psi
- Phosphor Bronze = 15 psi

Formula

Rate Per 360 degrees = Ed^4 / 10.8 DN

- d = 0.035 inches
- OD = 0.500 inches
- D = 0.465 inches
- N = 3
- Wire Type = Music Wire
- E For Music Wire = 30 x 10^6

Spring constants are fundamental in the world of springs. They help us understand how springs behave under different conditions. Whether you're designing compression, extension, or torsion springs, knowing how to calculate spring constants is a game-changer.

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